>>>>在美中国留学生专业选择与毕业后就业情况分析

在美中国留学生专业选择与毕业后就业情况分析

2018年,中国学生留学美国的浪潮依旧热情不减。根据美国移民海关总署ICE在2018年统计的229个国家和地区的留学生中,虽然亚洲整体学生赴美留学的数量有了轻微下降(0.8%),但是中国留学生比前一个统计年增加了6,305人,达到了377,070的新高*。在这个大背景下,续航教育留美趋势研究团队对大家所关注的“中国留学生毕业后是留在美国还是回国工作”的问题进行了分析研究。

首先,我们可以看一个简单的加减法,留在美国工作的留学生+回国工作的留学生=来美国的中国留学生。事实上,留在美国工作的中国学生和来美国留学的中国学生数量都是有统计数据可以查询的,那我们在做一个简单的分析自然可以得出回国工作的中国留学生情况了。其次,这些分析都不可避免的要涉及到我们留学生的专业分布,我们的调查也集中在来美国留学和留在美国工作的中国留学生数量以及其各自的专业分布。

(1)究竟有多少中国留学生获得了H1B签证?他们又都是来自哪类专业的?

留在美国工作的留学生不可避免的需要经历工作许可抽签,也就是我们熟悉的H1-B抽签。根据美国移民服务局(USCIS)公布的最新2017年H1-B抽签结果统计数据**显示,作为占了美国总留学人数1/3的中国留学生,获批H1-B的数量为15000人,占总比14%。而占美国总留学人数1/6的印度留学生获批的H1-B数量却达到了惊人的67000人,占比63%。造成这个差距的主要原因是:两国留学生在专业的选择上有非常大的差异。这份报告还有一个惊人的数据是所有获批的H1-B留学生中有将近70%的岗位是计算机相关的工作。我们可以大胆的推测所有留美的留学生中有70%是计算机相关专业,虽然这个比例在2017年略有下降,但也高达62%。从上述数据中中我们可以得出的结论是,美国现阶段对留学生开放的岗位需求基本上都是计算机相关岗位。

带着这个70%的比例我们再来分析一下中国留学生的专业选择。根据Open Door 2017年的数据显示,来美国留学的中国留学生选择最多的三个方向为商科(23.1%)、工科(18.7%)和理科(25%)***(理工科也就是我们熟悉的STEM专业)。从2010年到2017的国际教育协会统计结果显示,中国在这三个方向的留学生占比基本稳定保持在70%左右,其中STEM专业大概占了40%左右,各自的变化也并不大。我们也可以从这些数据看出,中国留学是在专业的选择上并没有特别的去迎合美国对于计算机专业人才的需求。另外,艺术类留学生在近7年增长了一倍有余,而语言类留学生是在逐年减少。但这些相比于商科和STEM专业仍是中国留学生选择的少数。

中国留学生就读专业统计

Chinese International Students in U.S. by Majors

Chinese International Students in U.S. by Majors

同样,我们来看一下印度留学生就读的专业统计结果,非常明显的差异就是印度留学生STEM专业占了将近80%,人数基数大是印度留学生在最后H1-B的抽签中可以占到如此大比例的一个最重要因素。同时,这个比例从2010年开始一直持续增加,我们可以猜测印度留学生为了迎合美国就业需求,这个比例在将来也一样会保持这个增加的趋势。

印度留学生就读专业统计

Indian International Students in U.S. by Majors

Indian International Students in U.S. by Majors

造成这两国留学生专业选择差异的主要原因是在于留学的目的:

根据Foreign Policy调查显示,78%的中国学生表示来美国学习主要原因是美国高质量的教育水平,留学的目的主要是为了提升自我、开拓眼界;而印度留学生来美国留学的目的大部分是为了留在美国工作,自然在专业选择上就要迎合美国就业岗位的需求,体现在数据上就是70%的计算机相关的岗位需求造就了印度80%的理工科留学生比例;而中国留学生对专业的选择就会更倾向于自身的兴趣以及未来的发展上面,从而比例分配更加合理。

(2)专业选择并非迎合市场需求,工作形式相对严峻

从上面的数据和分析我们可以得到一个结论,中国留学是要留在美国工作其实非常难。根据美国移民海关总署的统计显示,2017年H1-B中国留学生获批只有15000人,而该届毕业生从美国教育部的数据上显示大致为10万人左右,也就是说只有1/7的中国留学生获得了美国工作签证,而这其中大部分还都是计算机相关的岗位。留给其他专业的岗位可能只能以“百”来计数,难度可谓是非常大。另外,对于学习计算机相关专业的中国留学生而言,在找工作时依然会遇到很多情况,比如:大部分的美国科技公司的岗位逐渐被印度学生占据;同时,留美政策也有缩紧的趋势,如:美国移民局最新的消息宣称办理签证材料不齐会直接拒签;以及,各大企业为了规避风险,公开或者非公开的表示不再接受留学生申请岗位等。这些因素都或多或少的加大了中国留学生留美工作的难度。

(3)留学生回国政策利好,就业岗位开放

留美工作的难度增大,也让越来越多的中国留学生在毕业后都选择了回国发展。一方面,中国留学生留美难度非常大,另一方面,中国对归国留学生政策的利好,不论是2008年开始实施的千人计划还是留学生落户政策都极大的鼓舞了中国留学生毕业后回国工作。根据调查报告显示,归国留学生中大部分选择在私企和外资公司工作,分别占了36.1%和26.7%,有大约14%在国企工作,8.9%选择了行政机构。在地理位置的选择上,北上广三地吸引了50%以上的留学生。在中国留学生回国发展的难度上相比于留美工作来说小巫见大巫,根据调查报告显示,大约有40%的留学生在回国一个月内找到了他们的第一份工作,37%的人在三个月内找到一份工作,大概14%的在3-6个月内求职成功,只有9%的人花了一年甚至更久来找到一份工作。但是,中国留学生回国工作同样不是没有风险,虽然出国留学的背景为留学生增加了就业机会,但海归与海归之间的竞争正变得越来越激烈;同时,重新融入中国文化环境也是长时间没有回国的海归需要考虑的问题。我们这里要回归出国留学的初衷:接受更好的教育以此来提升自己,只要我们坚持这个初衷总能找到一条适合自己的路。

参考文献:

* SEVIS BY THE NUMBERS

** Characteristics of H-1B Specialty Occupation Workers

*** IIE -  Open Door - Fields of Study

An analysis of majors and post-graduation planning for Chinese international students studying in the United States

According to the 2018 statistics put out by the United States Immigration Customs Administration, commonly referred to as the ICE; after surveying 229 regions across the globe, statistics show that although the number of Chinese students studying abroad in the U.S. dropped by a meager 0.8%, the actual number of Chinese students increased by 6,305 compared to the previous statistical year. In 2018, Chinese international students studying in the United States reached a new high of 377,070 [1].  In lieu of this information, the U.S. based Forward Pathway’s research team has decided to write an article to analyze the question, “Should Chinese international students stay in the U.S. or return to China to pursue a career after graduation?”

First, the number of Chinese international students who stays to work in the United States plus the number of Chinese international students who return to China equals to the total number of Chinese international students that will be studying abroad every year. While the data regarding total number of Chinese who come and those who stayed in the U.S. are easily accessible, the data and circumstances of those who will return to China to start their career will have to be inferred from the previous statistics mentioned. Second, an analysis of these three different groups will also inevitably involve their respective major and professional distributions.

  • How many Chinese international students who decided to stay and work in the U.S. will receive a H1-B? What are their respective majors?

Chinese international students who wish to stay in the United States and work will inevitably have to go through the work permit lottery process, commonly referred to as H1-B lottery. The 2017 survey conducted by the United States Immigration Service (USCIS) [2] shows that while Chinese international students accounts for one-third of all international students studying abroad in the U.S., the number of approved H1-B visas only tallied up to 15,000. This only takes up 14% of the total H1-B visa that’s being approved every year. However, Indian international students who only accounts for one-sixth of the international student pool studying in the U.S. reached an astonishing 67,000 approved H1-B visas. This number equates to 63% of all approved H1-B visas. This drastic disparity stems from the different major choices chosen by the students of these two countries. Another startling fact is that almost 70% of all approved H1-B visas are for students in the computer related fields. From this fact alone, we can roughly state that 70% of international students who stayed in the United States studied in a computer-related major during their academic years. While this 70% saw a decrease down to 62% during 2017, it is still a high number nevertheless. Drawing from the data stated above, we can conclude that at present times, the demand for computer-related professionals in the U.S. is at an all-time high.

Keeping the 70% figure in mind, let's now look at the respective fields that are often chosen by Chinese international students. According to the statistics published by Open Door in 2017, Chinese international students who comes to the United States are most likely to choose majors in the three following fields: Business/Finance (23.1%), Engineering (18.7%), or Science (25%) (With Science & Technology being the ever familiar STEM path.) [3] The International Education Association compiled data from 2010 to 2017. These data showed these three disciplines combined makes up for almost 70% of majors chosen by Chinese international students. A trend that has remained steady for the past several years. Of these 70%, approximately 40% of the majors also fell under the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) classification. From these data, we can see that when Chinese international students are selecting their preferred path of education, they do not do so with the intention of conforming to the needs of the U.S. computer-related fields. In addition, the number of Chinese international students in the liberal arts fields has more than doubled within the past seven years while those who are studying languages have been decreasing at a steady pace. However, these two groups are still considered as a minority when viewing the Chinese international student population as one can see from the chart below.

Figure 1 Chinese International Students in U.S. by Majors

Chinese International Students in U.S. by Majors

Chinese International Students in U.S. by Majors

Below is the breakdown of Indian international students and their chosen majors/disciplines starting from 2010 and ending at 2017. It is very apparent that Indian international students that studied a STEM related major accounts for almost 80% of the population. And starting from 2010, the number of Indian international students studying STEM related majors also steadily grew. These data show why Indian international students takes up 63% of the approved H1-B visa pool. Here, we can make an educated guess that Indian international students have been steadily increasing in pursuing majors in the STEM or computer-related field to better meet the needs of the U.S. job market as well as increasing their chances of obtaining the ever elusive H1-B work visa.

Figure 2 Indian International Students in U.S. by Majors

Indian International Students in U.S. by Majors

Indian International Students in U.S. by Majors

This drastic difference in choosing a discipline is due to the difference in view between Chinese and Indian international students:

According to a Foreign Policy survey, 78% of Chinese international student stated that the main reason for them to come to study in the United States was for the stellar academic education that is readily available. Concurrently, it is an excellent opportunity for them to broaden their horizon and to foster and enhance their sense of independence and mental fortitude. This is opposed to the majority of Indian international students who hopes to gain the valuable opportunity to remain and work in the U.S. Thus, the natural course of action for Indian international students is to pick majors that appeals to the U.S. job market. This can be readily seen in the 70% computer-related job demand 80% STEM related majors in the Indian international student pool. On the other hand, Chinese international students are more inclined to pick majors that better suit their own personal interest and will have an impact towards their future professional pursuits. Thus, explaining the drastic disparity of approved H1-B visas between the Chinese international student population versus their Indian counterpart.

2) Education/Professional choices failing to meet market demand, thus creating a lack of opportunities.

After analyzing the data presented above, we can reach the conclusion that for Chinese international student hoping to remain in the U.S. post-graduation and gaining employment is very difficult. According to statistics published by the U.S. Immigration Customs Administration, only 15,000 Chinese international students were granted H1-B work visas 2017. According to the U.S. Department of Education, in that very same year, 100,000 Chinese international students graduated from an U.S. College or University. So that means only 1/7 of the Chinese international student population obtained a U.S. work visa with the majority in the computer related field. Jobs reserved for other professions may only number in the “hundreds.”  Thus, we can see the difficulty presented for post-graduate Chinese international students. In addition, even for Chinese international students in the computer related fields, there are still many circumstances that needs to be considered. For example, many positions for American technology/computer companies are slowly being outsourced to India. At the same time, the U.S. government has become more stringent in policies regarding international workers.

According to the latest news from U.S. Immigration Services:

If the visa application materials are not in conformity with the standards set, the visa application will be rejected outright.

Due to this new regulation, many public and private companies, in order to reduce the risk have becoming unwilling to accept applications by international students. Further increasing the difficulty for Chinese international students who hope to remain in the U.S.

3) Returning to China where opportunities are aplenty

With the ever-increasing difficulty of remaining in the U.S. as a Chinese international student, many has decided to return to China post-graduation for their professional pursuits. In addition, the Chinese government have continuously been putting out appealing policies and regulations for returning Chinese students. The 2008 “Thousand Talents Program” where generous incentives were given out in order to attract leading international experts in various fields is perhaps the biggest example of this. According to a survey conducted, of the returning students 36.1% chose to work in private companies, 26.7% in foreign entities, 14% in state-owned enterprises and 8.9% in administrative agencies. In terms of geographical choices, the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangdong area has attracted more than 50% of the returning students.

The difficulty of finding a job in China when compared to the U.S. as a Chinese international student is relatively small. Survey reports that 40% of international students found a job within one month after returning to China, 37% found a job within three months, 14% in 3-6 months, and only 9% of the population surveyed took longer than a year to find a job. Despite the enhanced background advantage for returning Chinese students, there are still other difficulties that they must work to overcome. The competition between returnees and local students has become extremely fierce. At the same time, those who came back from studying abroad will also enter a time of adjustment while they reintegrate back into Chinese culture. Despite these difficulties Chinese international students must remember their original intention of studying abroad: To strive for a better education, to broaden one’s horizon, and finally to better oneself through this experience while fostering and enhancing one’s mental fortitude and attitude. As long as the student remember the original intention of choosing to study abroad, he or she will always find themselves on a path towards success.

Since its inception, Forward Pathway has always adhered to the principles of “always striving for a better education” and “to guide Chinese international students towards a better future” while incorporating said mottos into our service attitude. Forward Pathway is aimed at being students’ personal education specialist, to be the first to update the latest news of studying abroad. To provide students with the best possible solutions towards applying to study in the United States.

References

[1] ICE, "SEVIS by the numbers," 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.ice.gov/doclib/sevis/pdf/byTheNumbersApr2018.pdf.
[2] UCIS, "Characteristics of H-1B Specialty Occupation Workers," UCIS, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/files/nativedocuments/Characteristics_of_H-1B_Specialty_Occupation_Workers_FY17.pdf.
[3] IIE, "Fields of Study," IIE, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data/International-Students/Fields-of-Study.

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在美中国留学生专业选择与毕业后就业情况分析

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By |2018-10-21T05:39:30+00:00七月 18th, 2018|Categories: 美国留学宝典|Tags: , |

a. 本科申请 

b. 初、高中申请

c. 研究生申请及转学

d. 社区大学申请及转学

e. 初、高中转学

f. 本科转学

g. 博士申请

h. 交留学者申请

i. 小学申请

j. 未来职业规划

a. 护照办理

i. 准备材料及办理流程

b. 签证办理

i. 面签之前所需准备

ii. DS-160填写方法

iii. 面签所需材料及流程

iv. J1签证

c. 其他情况

i. 特殊签证情况

ii. 帮父母办理美国旅游签证

iii. EVUS签证更新电子系统申请方法

a. 赴美前行李准备

b. 机票

i. 购买机票的网站及航空公司选择

ii. 行李托运要求

iii. 赴美转机攻略

c. 住宿

i. 校内、外住宿

ii. 开通水电网

iii. 美国留学生搬家

iv. 出游订酒店

d. 下飞机后安顿

e. 购物

i. 美国超市

ii. 购买家具

iii. 在美购物

iv. 网购

v. 黑五促销

f. 就餐

i. 校内、外就餐

ii. 相关饮食类app及网站

iii. 给小费

iv. 星巴克饮品

g. 交通出行

i. 公共交通

ii. 考驾照

iii. 租车须知

iv. 买车须知

v. 留学生洗车攻略

h. 银行卡

i. 借记卡开户

ii. 信用卡

iii. 汇钱,交学费

i. 电话卡

i. 运营商及套餐选择

j. 保险

i. 人身医疗保险

ii. 汽车保险

iii. 房屋保险

iv. 视力保险

k. 交通罚单

l. 美国节假日

m. 宠物领养

n. 境内外邮寄

o. 留学生报税

p. 医美戴牙套

a. 选课及退课

b. 高效学习

i. 备战期末考试

c. 更好利用学校资源

i. 学校辅导中心

ii. 校园招聘 Job Fair

iii. 图书馆及其他实验室等学术设施

d. 留学期间如何找工作

i. 申请校内工作

ii. 申请CPT

a. 旅游

i. 城市

ii. 自然、探险

iii. 带家人玩转美国

b. 户外活动

i. 滑雪

ii. 高尔夫

iii. 打猎

iv. 徒步/登山

v. 钓鱼

c. 各种娱乐分项

i. 大型游乐场

a. 学术紧急情况

i. GPA过低

ii. 考试作弊

iii. 论文抄袭

iv. 缺勤过多

v. 代写代考被抓

vi. I-20被取消

b. 美国大学常见处分

i. 警告(Warning)处分

ii. 留校察看(Probation)处分

iii. 停学(Suspension)处分

iv. 开除(Dismiss)处分

c. 开除紧急应对

i. 申诉信

ii. 紧急转学

iii. 身份激活

d. 生活紧急情况

i. 自然灾害

ii. 生病就医

iii. 社会情况

iv. 车祸应对

v. 警察应对

a. 留学生回国证明

b. 学历学位认证

c. 毕业典礼

d. 实习、找工作

e. 身份问题

i. OPT

ii. H1B

iii. 绿卡

iv. 公民

a. 行李打包、托运及寄送

b. 重新融入国内环境

c. 归国留学生优惠

留学宝典

美国留学宝典

史上最全留学指南

a. 为什么要出国留学

b. 中国留学美国人员调查报告

c. 专业选择与毕业后就业情况

a. 选学校、专业

i. 美国大学排名参考榜单

ii. 申请学校的基本信息

iii. 学长学姐相关建议

iv. 美国教育部认可的美国大学名单

b. 标准化考试准备

i. 托福TOEFL

ii. 雅思IELTS

iii. SAT

iv. ACT

v. GRE

vi. GMAT

vii. LSAT

c. 文书申请材料准备

i. 个人陈述 Personal Statement

ii. 推荐信 Recommendation Letter

iii. 个人简历 Resume

iv. 其他特殊要求的essay

d. 学历证明

i. 官方成绩单

ii. 认证成绩单

e. 其他相关学术及课外活动材料

i. 竞赛相关

ii. 实习经历、科研项目

ii. 作品集 (艺术类学生)

iv. 学生社团

v. 公益活动

f. 财产证明

g. 体检和疫苗

h.美国大学奖学金

a. 本科申请 

b. 初、高中申请

c. 研究生申请及转学

d. 社区大学申请及转学

e. 初、高中转学

f. 本科转学

g. 博士申请

h. 交留学者申请

i. 小学申请

j. 未来职业规划

a. 护照办理

i. 准备材料及办理流程

b. 签证办理

i. 面签之前所需准备

ii. DS-160填写方法

iii. 面签所需材料及流程

iv. J1签证

c. 其他情况

i. 特殊签证情况

ii. 帮父母办理美国旅游签证

iii. EVUS签证更新电子系统申请方法

a. 赴美前行李准备

b. 机票

i. 购买机票的网站及航空公司选择

ii. 行李托运要求

iii. 赴美转机攻略

c. 住宿

i. 校内、外住宿

ii. 开通水电网

iii. 美国留学生搬家

iv. 出游订酒店

d. 下飞机后安顿

e. 购物

i. 美国超市

ii. 购买家具

iii. 在美购物

iv. 网购

v. 黑五促销

f. 就餐

i. 校内、外就餐

ii. 相关饮食类app及网站

iii. 给小费

iv. 星巴克饮品

g. 交通出行

i. 公共交通

ii. 考驾照

iii. 租车须知

iv. 买车须知

v. 留学生洗车攻略

h. 银行卡

i. 借记卡开户

ii. 信用卡

iii. 汇钱,交学费

i. 电话卡

i. 运营商及套餐选择

j. 保险

i. 人身医疗保险

ii. 汽车保险

iii. 房屋保险

iv. 视力保险

k. 交通罚单

l. 美国节假日

m. 宠物领养

n. 境内外邮寄

o. 留学生报税

p. 医美戴牙套

a. 选课及退课

b. 高效学习

i. 备战期末考试

c. 更好利用学校资源

i. 学校辅导中心

ii. 校园招聘 Job Fair

iii. 图书馆及其他实验室等学术设施

d. 留学期间如何找工作

i. 申请校内工作

ii. 申请CPT

a. 旅游

i. 城市

ii. 自然、探险

iii. 带家人玩转美国

b. 户外活动

i. 滑雪

ii. 高尔夫

iii. 打猎

iv. 徒步/登山

v. 钓鱼

c. 各种娱乐分项

i. 大型游乐场

a. 学术紧急情况

i. GPA过低

ii. 考试作弊

iii. 论文抄袭

iv. 缺勤过多

v. 代写代考被抓

vi. I-20被取消

b. 美国大学常见处分

i. 警告(Warning)处分

ii. 留校察看(Probation)处分

iii. 停学(Suspension)处分

iv. 开除(Dismiss)处分

c. 开除紧急应对

i. 申诉信

ii. 紧急转学

iii. 身份激活

d. 生活紧急情况

i. 自然灾害

ii. 生病就医

iii. 社会情况

iv. 车祸应对

v. 警察应对

a. 留学生回国证明

b. 学历学位认证

c. 毕业典礼

d. 实习、找工作

e. 身份问题

i. OPT

ii. H1B

iii. 绿卡

iv. 公民

a. 行李打包、托运及寄送

b. 重新融入国内环境

c. 归国留学生优惠

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